Christianity gerard manley hopkins Literature Mitchell Kalpakgian Poetry Surf

The Light of Gerard Manley Hopkins in the Dark Victorian World

gerard manley hopkins

In the darkish, melancholic, skeptical background of Victorian England, Gerard Manley Hopkins’ poetry presents a picture of God as a prolific Creator, loving Father, and consummate Artist who blesses man with ample presents of magnificence to encourage and uplift the coronary heart and soul…

gerard manley hopkinsIn the Victorian Age, the spirit of the occasions induced a disaster of religion in the battle between science and faith mirrored in the poetry of Alfred Lord Tennyson and Matthew Arnold. Darwin’s Origin of Species with its doctrines of evolution, accident, and the survival of the fittest gave scientific credibility to a worldview that opposed the Christian doctrine of Creation as the handiwork of God’s Windfall. Tennyson’s In Memoriam A.H.H, an elegiac tribute to Arthur Henry Hallam, not solely grieves for a beloved pal but in addition makes use of the event to mourn the loss of Christian religion in an age of doubt, pondering how man

Who trusted God was love certainly

And love Creation’s last regulation—

Tho’ Nature, pink in tooth and claw

With ravine, shriek’d towards his creed.

Matthew Arnold’s “Dover Beach” additionally laments the loss of religion and certitude in an age of disbelief that deprives man of the convictions and consolations of Christian hope in God’s plan of salvation:

The Sea of Religion

Was as soon as, too, at the full, and spherical the earth’s shore

Lay like the folds of a vibrant girdle furl’d.

However now I solely hear

Its melancholy, lengthy, withdrawing roar,

Retreating, to the breath

Of the night-wind, down the huge edges drear

And bare shingles of the world.

On this darkish, melancholic, skeptical background of Victorian England, Gerard Manley Hopkins’ poetry presents a picture of God as a prolific Creator, loving Father, and consummate Artist who blesses man with ample presents of magnificence to encourage and uplift the coronary heart and soul. All over the place in the pure world God provides proof of plentiful love, bountiful generosity, and inexhaustible magnificence. In “Pied Beauty” Hopkins wonders at the unmistakable richness of God’s ornate artwork and His distinct signature revealed in the many examples of combined, variegated magnificence of blended colours and mixtures in the sky, on earth, and in the water:

Glory be to God for dappled issues—

For skies of couple color-colour as a brinded cow;

For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim;

Recent-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches’ wings;

Panorama plotted and pieced—fold, fallow, and plow;

And all trades, their gear and deal with and trim.

If the invisible issues of God are recognized by the seen, as St. Paul teaches, and if the heavens declare the glory of God in the phrases of the Psalmist, then the coupled-colored sky of azure blue noticed with patches of white clouds and the brown or black cows streaked with white and the rainbow trout flecked with dots all proclaim a resplendent world of gleaming tones and hues organized to seize the essence of magnificence: “that which being seen pleases” (id quod visum placet) in St. Thomas Aquinas’ definition of magnificence. As above, so under. The pied magnificence of the sky is mirrored in the brindled cow on the land and the stippled trout in the water. The pied magnificence of the huge heavens is mirrored in the smaller figures of cows, fish, and finches, and even the smallest issues like flowers. As Hopkins noticed of the bluebell in one of his journal entries, “I know the beauty of the Lord by it.”

The infinite selection of the combined colours in the sky has its counterpart in the quilted landscapes of farmland, pastures, hills, and valleys. The birds of the air like the finch in golden wings present the similar array of colour that makes the cow and the fish additionally “dappled things” of beautiful artwork. Each issues small like the finch in its golden-tipped wings and the roasted chestnut in the glow of shade and issues nice like the sky and the panorama all reveal the telltale indicators of the divine type with its harmonious order of unity and selection. All of them declare the glory of God who speaks in the language of Nature’s magnificence, multiplicity, and variety for man’s delight and contemplation. All males in “their and tackle and trim” too share in this nice work of artwork and likewise categorical the inexhaustible lots of God’s creation by the numerous presents of human arms, minds, and our bodies in the many professions and trades that type a human world. This plentiful, teeming world of infinite magnificence and countless supply of delight and marvel proclaims God’s nearness and presence. The glory of dappled issues exhibits God incarnate in His creation as an artist reveling in its goodness.

The expertise of pied magnificence and dappled issues creates a strong impression that evokes marvel. It impacts each the physique and the soul, each the senses and the mind. Magnificence not solely pleases the eye each additionally leads the thoughts to a contemplation of magnificence, fact, and goodness. What’s the supply or trigger of magnificence? Why is the world full of such nice, infinite reserves of magnificence that by no means endure diminishment? How is magnificence a supply of information in addition to an aesthetic pleasure and a delight for the senses? As Robert Frost wrote, a poem begins in marvel and ends in information. All results have causes, and all results resemble their causes:

All issues counter, unique, spare, unusual;

No matter is fickle, freckled (who is aware of how?)

With swift, sluggish; candy, bitter; adazzle dim;

He fathers-forth whose magnificence is previous change:

Reward him.

Magnificence fills the thoughts with marvel to marvel at the distinctive individuality of all created issues Hopkins calls “counter, original, spare, strange.” All is new, recent, and unrepeatable. “There lives the dearness oneness deep down things,” Hopkins writes in “God’s Grandeur.” Selection and distinction fill all of creation with a myriad of preparations and mixtures of blended, motley colours that make dwelling issues “fickle”—unpredictable and shocking—and “freckled” with additional touches of adornment. Actions (“swift, slow”) too have this high quality of spontaneous, random, irregular turns, waves, and undulations that make them all the time incalculable. Tastes (“sweet, sour”) likewise contribute to the savor, zest, salt, and spice of life that rescues it from humdrum monotony and predictable sameness. In different phrases, God does all in His energy, love, and Windfall to maintain man alive, engaged, energized, and enthusiastic about the pleasure of life that by no means stops renewing the coronary heart, soul, and thoughts with the lively dynamic power God’s endless generosity: “He fathers-forth” with out restrict to his goodness, and regardless of the abundance of the magnificence, the supply (“whose beauty is past change”) by no means suffers loss or impoverishment.

God isn’t lifeless, defeated, or changed as the Victorian poets of doubt contend. God has not disappeared or surrendered to science, materialism, evolution, or man. Nature “red in tooth and claw” reduces creation to the survival of the fittest with no sense of its transcendental or sacramental actuality. The recurrence of pied magnificence’s many appearances all the time infuses the radiance of God’s shade and lightweight into the world to color it anew. The fickle, freckled nature of pied magnificence brings freshness, pleasure, and originality into life to rescue it from lethargy and stagnation. The marvel, ardour, and thrill that pied magnificence evokes retains the beholder in a state of hope and in love with life.

As Hopkins exhibits in “God’s Grandeur,” “The world is charged with the grandeur of God. /It will flame out, like shining from shook foil; /It gathers to a greatness like the ooze of oil/Crushed.” Charged, flaming out, shining, or gathering to greatness, an explosive, dynamic power releases its religious energy into the world and makes all issues new and resplendent. Regardless of the age of the world or the billions of individuals who have inhabited the earth or what number of “Generations have trod, have trod, have trod;/ And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil;/And wears man’s smudge and shares man’s smell,” the world doesn’t decay or atrophy from age or use. God’s life-breathing power, like God’s fathering-forth, continues to protect and maintain creation: “And for this, nature is never spent.” The freshness deep down issues is all the time mounting and gathering momentum. Although the pure world is encircled in the darkness of night time and the social situation of the world relegates man, in Arnold’s phrases, “on a darkling plain/ Swept with confused alarms of struggle and fright, / Where ignorant armies clash by night,” God’s Grandeur that shines in the refulgence of morning bursts or “springs” like a fowl flashing via the sky at the first signal of daybreak to convey mild out of darkness and life from dying. God’s illuminating religious exercise in the world resembles the mild of daybreak dispelling the gloom of night time and the flight of the birds dashing in their flight “Because the Holy Ghost over the bent world/ Broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings.”

God fathers-forth. The world is charged. It flames out. God’s grandeur builds up and gathers to greatness. It shines out. Morning springs. The fowl flies in a burst of power. The Holy Spirit releases all this explosive, electrical divine power as God as soon as once more breathes life, mild, love, heat, and wonder into Creation and into the coronary heart of man to ship him from the doubt and despair of all the forces of darkness that kill the human spirit and stifle the leap of the coronary heart that cries “Glory be to God for dappled things” and “Praise him.”

In Memoriam: Mitchell Kalpakgian handed away on August 28, 2018.

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